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Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Melissa Ann Shaw

This history was written by my grandmother in 1962 while she was recovering from hip surgery.
 
I was born in Leigh, Idaho, now know as Clawson on Sept. 10, 1895.  My father was Osmond Wielding Shaw and my mother was Melissa Ann Atwood.  My father had been born in Utah, my mother in Pennsylvania.  He was English and she English, Penn. Dutch, and a little Irish.  They had bought a relinquishment on a homestead at Leigh in Teton Basin.  There was no doctor in the valley at the time so mother had a midwife wait on her.  She was very sick, and both she and I almost died so father named me at birth.  He gave me my mother’s name, Melissa Ann.
    I was the next to the youngest of ten children.  There were six boys and four girls.  Two boys and one girl died in childhood or infancy.  My brother, Earl, was six years younger than me.  He was my chief playmate and companion when we were children.
    I started to school when is was six years old.  The school was called North Leigh School.  It was a one room rough log house with a dirt roof.  It was heated with a big stove in the middle of the room.  My desk was one that my father had made.  He made all of his children a desk as the school had none of its own.  The desk was made of lumber.  The four legs were made of 4 x 4’s.  They were smaller at the bottom.  It had a sort of box to put the books in.  The back was higher than the front.  The top was on a slope and it could be lifted up to put books and slates in.  The seat part was made of heavy lumber with a real tall back so you couldn’t see the person that sat in back of you.  The desks were never painted.  When they got dirty we scrubbed them with soap and water.
    My teacher was a man named James O’Brian.  He was a neighbor to my mother and father.  He chewed tobacco and swallowed the juice, what didn’t run out of the corners of his mouth.  I don’t think I learned much that winter and I didn’t like my teacher.  My brothers also went to the same school.  They drove a team of horses on a sleigh and took all the children who lived along the road.  Sometimes it was so awful cold I would have to wrap up in quilts to keep from freezing.  When the snow melted I had to walk as my brothers had to quit school and go into the fields to farm.  It was three miles from home, quite a walk for a little six year old girl.
    I want to tell about my mother right here, for about this time she carried mail from Hayden, a place about seven miles from our house.  She also rant the post office.  She drove an old black horse by the name of "Nig" on a cart to Hayden.  She would pick up the mail and bring it home.  She made that trip every day but Sunday.  I used to sometimes like to go with her.  She had a special place in the kitchen where she kept the mail.  Anyone expecting mail would call for it.
    Our house was a two-room log house with a dirt roof.  It had wide planks for the floor on which there was no covering.  Father was an excellent carpenter.  When I was about 13 he built our big house.  It had four bedrooms, a large kitchen and front room, a bathroom (without fixtures), a pantry, and a closed in porch.  It was the nicest house in the neighborhood. Father and Mother were hard workers and good managers.  They were prosperous farmers.
    I was always playing out around the barns and the outbuildings and with the livestock.  One day I ran into the barn behind Nig.  I guess I must have frightened her and she kicked me and knocked me out.  I was unconscious for quite a long time.  After that I was more careful about getting around livestock. 
    The next summer after my first winter in school my sister Ellie and I went to Cache, a school about three miles south of Father’s farm.  We walked, and as there were two creeks to cross, Father made foot bridges for us to cross on.  He put a hand rail on each side to help keep us from falling in.  In the Spring of the year there was a lot of water in the creeks and they were deep.  Going to school that summer helped me so I could take the second grade the next Fall.  I think I went to North Leigh School the next year.  Then the community built a school a new frame school house about three miles from the old log house and called it South Leigh School.  This is where I went until I graduated form the eighth grade. 
    I had several different teachers.  Their names, as I can remember were: Mr. Steele, a man my brother, Will, met while he was on a mission in the Western States.  Mr. Steele came to Idaho to teach school.  There was also a Mr. Hunnicut.  Mr. Hugh Barnes taught.  He was blind in one eye.  He was nice and I liked him.  I won a nice book the year Mr. Barnes taught.  It was fun having a perfect record in discipline, attendance, and grades.  I had a perfect record in spelling.  I still have the book and treasure it.  It is a book of poems.  Mr. Alma Hansen also taught.  He tried to teach me algebra, but it was hard for me.  I used to have a run-in with him quite often.  He was alright, but I didn’t care for him too well.
    While I was growing up I had to help with the work about the place.  It was my job to carry all the wood in to burn, also the coal and water.  In the summer I had to take a big tub and go out a short distance from the house where Father had sharpened the fence posts in the Winter for the  Spring, and gather chips.  I would fill the tub just as full as possible  Then Mother or one of the boys would help me carry it to the house.  We used the chips to make a big and quick fire to heat the flatirons so we could do our ironing as we had no electricity in those days.  We use to use heavy, old, cast-iron flatirons. 
    It was also my job to help wash.  We had a hand washer.  It was my job to turn this washer, and also to turn the wringer to wring the clothes.  When I got larger I hung them on the line. 
    I also had to clean the lamps everyday to have them ready for night.  We used coal-oil lights.  I would have to clean the chimney and put oil in the lamps.  When we got a gas lamp I would have to attend to it.  The gas gave a much better light than the coal-oil.
    I had to feed the chickens, ducks, and turkeys twice a day and gather their eggs every evening.  In the summer I had to find the ducks as there were two springs on the place and the ducks liked to go a long ways away following the water.  Sometimes the hid their nests and I wasn’t able to find them.  Mother wanted the ducks in the coop every night as coyotes would kill them sometimes if they were left out.  I had to herd the turkeys to keep coyotes from them.  Why a coyote would get in the flock and probably kill a dozen or more in just a few minutes.  The folks had first turned the turkeys loose and let them roam the hills.
    Another of my jobs was to get the cows in the corral in time for milking.  The would feed on the hills close by.  Sometimes I would hunt for several hours before I could find them.  I had to walk up and down hill after hill hunting them.  When I got to be about eight years old I had to help Mother do the milking and carry big buckets of milk to the house to separate them.  I would turn the separator to separate cream from the milk as we sold the cream to the creamery to be made into butter and fed the milk to the pigs. 
    Mother raised turkeys, as I have told about, and she had a tom that used to fight anyone who wore a dress.  He would jump on you and hit you with his wings and peck at you.  Many a time I have taken a large club and beaten him off.  He would drop down like he was dead, lay there for a while, get up and spin around a few times, and then go off.  But if he saw you within five minutes he would start all over again.  So mother traded him for a pure white tom and we got a big laugh out of that as he wouldn’t bother anyone with skirts but if it wasn’t he would give the men a rough time.  I have seen him jump clear on Father’s shoulders when he was carrying two big buckets of feed to the pigs.  We didn’t keep him very long.
    Many is the time I have been kept up on a fence for hours b a buck sheep standing just below, and no way that I could get away from him.  Either Father or one of the boys would have to come with the dogs and scare him away.  Then I would have to run like a deer to get to the house.  I would be very hot and tired.
    One day my brother Earl and I caught our saddle horse, whose name was Queen, and attempted to saddle her.  Work as hard as we could, we couldn’t tighten the cinches.  We both got on her and started to go.  I was in the saddle and Earl behind.  We went for a little way then we started to gallop and that was when the trouble started.  The saddle turned right under Queen’s belly.  Of course we both fell off. The horse, being gentle, stepped so we didn’t get hurt,
Other than a few bruises and skinned places.  We didn’t ever try to saddle a horse again until we were grown.
    Father’s place, being right by the creek and the water being real clear and good to drink, there were always a lot of people passing by who camped overnight. They came to our house to buy eggs, milk, bread, and other things to eat.  When I was alone I would get real nervous.  Sometimes I would lock the door and not answer when they knocked.  We had a real good dog that wouldn’t let people come very close.
    The first dog I can remember real well was named Bounce.  He was a large dog, coal black with a white spot on his nose and one on each foot  He was the family pet and used to sleep in the house.  He was also a good watch dog and heeler.  I felt real bad when he died of old age.
    The summer I was ten years old, Mother made me go and stay with my sister, Rosa, while her husband was away working.  They lived a long ways away from any neighbors on what we called Clawson
    I remember I got so homesick that I ran away.  I walked all that seven miles and I was so happy to be home with my Mother and Father.  It was also so pretty and green after being on the sunburned flat, no trees nor anything that was green.  As soon as I went in the house Mother asked, “How did you get here?”  I said I had walked.  She never kissed me or even put her arm around me.  All she said was that I would have to go right back.  When Dad came in for noon, nothing to do but he must take me right back in the buggy.  I cried all the way, but they made me stay the rest of the summer.
    Riding to school in the Winter I froze my feet and I would have chill pains so bad that I would have to leave the school room, take off my shoes and stockings, and wade in the snow to stop the itching.  My mother knitted me long-legged, black wool stockings.  I just hated them after I got older.  She also made me wear long-legged and long-sleeved union suits and panties.  The panties were called tights and they were long-legged also.  I always had to wear two petticoats, or what you call slips today.  I used to have to wear boy’s shoes.  They were big, heavy leather with thick soles and hooks on them.  I was about twelve or thirteen years old when they got the last pair for me and I refused to wear them.  I said I would go barefooted first.  They insisted that I put them on, but I wouldn’t.  I guess I must have put up a real rumpus, but that was once I won.  They took them back and got me some girl shoes.
    Father always took Mother and me to Sunday School.  When I was about fourteen years old I was asked to teach the kindergarten class in Sunday School.  I did that for about two years then I was sustained as the assistant secretary in the Sunday School.  I held that position for a year then I was sustained as secretary of the Sunday School.  I held that position until I was married about four years later.  I was also the secretary of the M.I.A.  (mutual)  I attended most all of the meetings including, S.S., sacrament meetings and mutual.  I always went to primary when I was younger.  I also attended what they call religion class.  It was held one night a week, after school for an hour.
    After my sister Rosa and Jim were married and had their first child, Elva, they lived in Victor, Idaho.  The lived in one room of William Wardle’s house.  Jim was working and I went to stay with them for a few days.  Those Wardles had a whole house full of kids.  There was on boy a little older then I.  One day I was outside and this boy was feeding lambs.  He came after me with this lamb bottle with a nipple on it and was going to make me suck it.  I thought he was the meanest boy alive.  I just hated him.  He came and put his face up to the window one day just to see what I was doing.  That made me real mad.  I was about eleven years old at the time.
    A few years later when I was nineteen years old I was at Driggs to a dance.  I met this Wardle girl who was about my age.  It was the first time I’d seen her since I was eleven.  We talked and she asked me if I’d like to meet her brother, Wilford.  So I did.  He danced with me the remainder of the evening.  He didn’t take me home as he was there a horseback, but he did make a date to take me to a celebration at Victor a few weeks after.  That was how I met my husband.  He was the same boy who tried to get me to suck the lamb bottle. 
    [There is a line cut off.]  We went with the horses and buggy.  A lot of the time Wilford would drive from Victor to Tetonia which was about twenty miles.  Then we would drive ten miles back to Driggs to a dance.  Then he would take me back home and drive back to Victor just in time to get on the mail wagon and go to Jackson.  There were no cars.  The only transportation was by horses, buggy or wagon.  We didn’t get to see each other very often, about once in two weeks as Wilford was working very hard for his father either driving mail from Victor to Jackson or driving a freight wagon.  His father had the contract to deliver freight and mail from Victor to Jackson.  Victor was the terminal of the railroad.  Wilford’s father kept him really busy, he being the oldest so he came to see his sweetheart when his father said he could. 
    We were married in the Salt Lake Temple  April 10, 1914.  We went to Salt Lake from Tetonia on the train.  My mother went with us.  It was all so strange and I was so frightened as I was who had never left home much.  It was only the second time I had ever ridden on a train.  I was very grateful to my mother for going with me.  While in Salt Lake we went to the Salt Lake Theatre to a play.  It was Rip Van Winkle.  It was the first time I had ever gone to such  nice theatre to see real people acting.  To this day I can still see Rip Van Winkle when he woke up from his long sleep,  how old he was, and his gun.  All that was left of it was the iron barrel.    It was very impressive to me.
    My folks gave us a wedding dinner and had folks from around Tetonia where I lived come in.  His folks gave a reception at their home for us.  There were a lot of his friends and relatives who came.  We got a lovely lot of gifts.  We had a public dance the night after the reception.  There was a large crowd and we had a nice time.
    We lived in Victor, rented us a house which had two rooms.  We had nice furniture, I thought, for a couple starting house keeping.  Father Wardle had made a deal with his two oldest boys.  If they would not use tobacco until they were twenty-one years old he would give them $100 towards furniture when they married.  Wilford had kept his part of the bargain.  Instead of $100 they got the furniture for us.  It consisted of a table, eight chairs, a cupboard with glass doors (real pretty), a chest of drawers, a dresser, an iron bed and springs (no mattress), and a wood rocking chair.  We bought us a nice stove range.  We had a nice lot of quilts.  I had made most of them, but we had two given to us as presents.  We also had a nice lot of dishes.  We were really happy in our new home.
    On Oct. 29, 1915 there came to stay at our house a little bit of heaven, a bundle of sweetness, our first little daughter.  I think she weighed around eight pounds, had a real lot of dark hair, and blue eyes.  We named her Audrey Melissa and we loved her so much.  She was a real good baby.  Mother Wardle was with us when she was born to help the doctor. 
    When Audrey was about a year old we filed a homestead on 160 acres of land in the North of the valley, about seven or eight miles east of Tetonia.  Wilford built us a one room log house.  It was a very neat house.  My mother furnished and then helped me tear and sew rugs.  We took them to a lady in Victor who wove them into a carpet.  I put that on half the floor and scrubbed boards floor the other half.  We were cozy, comfortable, and happy but the snow got so deep we had to move out for the winter. 
    On Dec. 23, 1917 we were blessed with another treasure from heaven, another little girl.  She had dark hair and blue eyes.  She was small, weighed just a little over seven pounds.  My mother was with me when she was born.  She was born quite early in the evening, and the next morning she woke Audrey up crying.  Mother asked her what it was and she answered, “It’s a wooser! [rooster]”  We named our new girl Lula Theo.  We had a midwife by the name of Mrs. Rammel who brought her into the world.
    All that winter Wilford was in bed with sciatica rheumatism.  He was awfully bad.  I had cows to milk and horses to feed and pump water for.  One day when I was pumping water the well caved in.  I threw my arm out and grabbed the pump, that was what kept me from going down the well.  I was thrown against the curb and broke three ribs.  I didn’t go to the doctor.  I just suffered with them until they healed.  We had a real bad time that winter.
    Audrey ran away on the crusted snow trying to catch the birds, she said.  We had her a pretty red coat, cap, and mittens.  I bundled her all up and let her go out to play.  That was when she followed the birds.  I had to run after her.  I guess I chased her for a mile before I caught up with her.
    On Nov. 15, 1919 our first boy was born.  He had red hair.  We named him William Hashton after Grandfather Wardle.  We called him Willie.  He was a very sweet boy.  We almost lost him when he was born as he had a hemorrhage.  He bled from eyes, nose, mouth and bowels.  The doctor gave him several blood transfusions.  He took two blood from me.  That checked it.  He lost so much blood that he was so cold, almost like death.  They wrapped him in blankets and put him in the oven to try and keep him warm.  The doctor gave him a sedative to keep him quiet when he wasn’t 24 hours old.  He lived to be two years and four months.  He was sick most of his life.  When he passed away his hair was white.  We had moved to Pocatello and were living there when Willie passed away.  Just before he died we had another little daughter born on Dec. 10, 1921.  She looked like the other girls with long dark hair.  We named her Myrtle Mary.  She was just a little doll, but the Lord saw fit to take her.  We were only permitted to keep her three months.  We had four children.  All of them, Wilford, and I were all sick at the same time with the flu.  There was a bad flu epidemic.  Wilford and three of the children had flu and pneumonia.  Two children were taken.  Willie died March 1 and Myrtle March 4, 1922.  That was terrible.  We were all too sick to leave the house so we had a little service for both of them at home.  It took a long time to get over the loss of my children.
    On March 29, 1923 we had another little girl born.  We named her Wanda Helen.  She also had dark hair and blue eyes.  She was a beautiful child.  She lived to be eleven months old.  We enjoyed her very much.  She and the other girls got whooping cough.  Wanda got pneumonia with it.  She passed away Feb. 10, 1924.  It was a very sad blow to all of us.
    On July 29, 1925 we had another son born.  We named him after his father, James Wilford.  He was a darling baby and the best one I ever saw.  He sucked his front finger.  It helped make him so good, and it never made his teeth crooked.  We had moved back to Victor and he was born there.  He had light hair.
    After Wilford came our little valentine girl.  She was so sweet with her big blue eyes and dark hair.  We called her Donna Phyllis.  She was born Feb. 14, 1927 at Driggs, Idaho.  She was a very good baby.  We called her Phyllis.
    When Phyllis was one and a half years old we moved to Salt Lake City, Utah so that Wilford could get work.  It was quite a change as I had never lived in such a large city.
    On July 10, 1929 we had another little girl come to live with us.  She was tiny and sweet.  We named her Verna Larene.  She was the only one of the children born in a hospital, all the rest were born at home.
    We lived in Salt Lake for one and a half years.  Wilford worked in a garage as a body and fender man.  Then he got out of work.  We went back to Victor and Wilford got work with Tonks with their sheep.  Then we moved to Lincoln near Idaho Falls.  Wilford worked in the fields and the sugar beet factory.  These were depression years.  Although Wilford worked very hard at anything he could find we had a very hard time to get along.  When Audrey graduated from High School Wilford pushed a baby buggy we no longer needed to Idaho Falls.  It was filled with some tools he sold, along with the buggy.  We used this money to buy Audrey a graduation dress.
    Later we moved back to Pocatello and then to two different farms near Blackfoot.  In 1938 we moved onto a ranch two and a half miles south of Rigby.  Audrey was married, Lula teaching school, and the other children at home.  While we lived here Phyllis went on a mission.  I learned to make drapes and worked at stores in Idaho Falls to keep her on her mission.
    In the year 1955 I was operated on for gallstones.  They removed two large ones and several smaller ones.  I was in the hospital [all] of ten days.  When I was able to walk my left leg started swelling real bad.  The doctor sent me home, telling me to stay off it and elevate it.  So I came home and was there for ten days.  One morning all the swelling was gone and I had a terrible pain in my right lung.  I could hardly get my breath.  I went back to the hospital for eighteen days.  The blood clot had passed through my heart and lodged in my right lung.  It left me with almost half of my right lung blocked off.  It bothers me sometimes, but not too much.  It is something I have to live with. 
    We lived on the farm until 1958.  During this time all of the children married and Wilford Jr. served in the Navy.  We sold the farm and moved into town.  It took a long time to adjust ourselves to town life.  We have a nice warm home and we enjoy it.  With all the children married and gone it gets really lonesome and quiet at times.  We enjoy the children and grandchildren when they come to visit.  We have 21 grandchildren, eleven boys and ten girls.
    During all these ears I worked in the church wherever we lived, held offices in M.I.A., Primary, Sunday School, and Relief Society.  During the ears 1960 and 1961 I was Captain of the Doriene Cap of the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers.  I have enjoyed working in the church in every capacity and I enjoyed D.U.P.  At the present I am just a R.S. visiting teach and work director for quilts. 
    Also during all this time I have saved a lot.  I have made most of my children’s clothes.  I still make drapes at home. 
    Wilford has always been very handy.  He built our nice home on the farm south of Rigby.  We both worked hard to raise our family.  But we have been richly rewarded because our children have become such wonderful adults.  Verna, Phyllis, and Audrey have all graduated from college.  Lula is nearly ready to graduate now.  All the girls have taught school.  Wilford attended college for a short time.  He is now a successful farmer, a member of the bishopric of his ward, and a leader in his community.  We are very proud of our children. 
    On July 9, 1962 I fell and broke my hip.  I was in the hospital for ten days, then I came home.  I was in bed or a wheel chair all summer.  The doctor took x-rays an it seemed to be healing but I was in pain all the time.  I had to take pain pills and sleeping pills.  Then the pain got so terrible I had to have the doctor come and give me a hypo to put me out.  We called the other doctor, Dr. Sells, who had done the operation.  He said for me to come to the hospital for x-rays again.  This was on Oct. 25.  They found out that it wasn’t growing together.  I would have to have another operation to put in a steel ball, as the ball in the socket was decaying.  It was broken in such a bad place that enough blood could not reach it to heal it.  So the operated again, Oct. 17, 1962.  I lay on my back for three weeks.  The first week I had a ten pound weight on my foot, then they reduced it to five pounds.  I kept that weight on for about ten days.  After the three weeks was over they got me up in a walking chair and I had to walk.  I was so weak that I would only take a few steps before I had to sit down and rest.  I did that for a week then the doctor let me come home.
    While I was in the hospital my youngest brother, Earl died.  I will miss him.  He was the first of my brothers and sisters to go, except for those who died while small.
    I came home Nov. 12, 1962.  I am slowly improving and walking in a walking chair more each day.  I hope that someday I will be able to walk without help.  I never realized before how many people cared about me.  I am grateful to them all.  The Lord has blessed me in so many ways and I am so grateful to him for sparing my life.  I have had such wonderful blessings given to me.  I know without a doubt it is through prayer that I am alive today.  I hope and pray that I will be able to do genealogy work and be of service to my husband, my children, my grandchildren, and others in need.
    I want to tell about the many times I had to run a race with a car.  Father had a pair of horses.  One mare was a sorrel and the other was a dapple gray.  We called the dapple “Dap” and the sorrel one “Nance”.  Father always hooked up Dap and Nance for me to take Mother where she had to go, to Relief Society or the store.  We used the white top buggy.  Automobiles were just coming into the valley.  When I saw on of them coming I would hit the horses on the tails and try to make it into some driveway, as they were frightened of cars.  But they would start bucking and regardless of how hard I hit them they wouldn’t go forward.  They would back us clear down in the burrow pit, sometimes in ditches.  One time they back us in South Leigh Creek.  We almost tipped over.  That was one time I couldn’t get out.  A man came along and helped me to get the buggy setting straight and back on the road.  That was on time I shook for hours and poor Mother was as frightened as I was.
    My mother had dropsy a long time.  She finally died in 1918.  Father lived on the farm with Earl for a while and then alone.  He was strong and healthy, but a small man.  He stacked his own hay at the age of 81.  He died in 1934 at the age of 83.

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Movie Review: Faith in Every Footstep: The Epic Pioneer Journey

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1zDMnx56SM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6cyIDUMNWA&NR=1
I posted this on my family blog, but am including it here as it applies the pioneer spirit that our ancestors had, to our day.  I like that.

I found links in two parts to this movie on Facebook.  I have a copy from the distribution center at home, and it is part of the "Church History: Home and Family Collection".  It was originally shown in conference April, 6, 1997 to commemorate the 150 years of the pioneers.  It is narrated by the first presidence at the time.  Gordon B. Hinckley, Thomas S. Monson and James E. Faust.  It follows the trek of the first company, while also talking of the handcart companies.

James E. Faust narrated the part about the handcarts, and made this analogy for our day.  He said, "In the heroic effort of the handcart pioneers we learn a great tuth.  All must pass through a refiner's fire.  And the insignificant and unimportant in our lives would melt away like dross and make our faith bright and tacked and strong.  There seems to be a full measure of anguish, sorrow and often heartbreak for everyone, including those who seek to do right and be faithful, yet this is part of the purging to become 'acquainted with God.'"

It was Frances Webster who used those words initially.  He and his wife chose to go by handcarts, so the money they saved could help others.  He suffered from hunger, overwork and cold.  Yet he did not become bitter, but was thankful he could become acquainted with God in this way.  He knew there were angels helping him along.

President Hinckley concludes the movie, talking about Ensign Peak.  "Rising above the Salt Lake Valley is a come shaped peak.  Brigham Young saw it in a vision before the Saints left Nauvoo.  He saw an ensign descend upon the hill and heard the voice of Joseph Smith say, 'Build under that point and you will prosper and have peace.'"  President Hinckley then explained how the leadership of the church climbed the peak a couple days after arriving in the valley.  Brigham said, " This is where we will plant the soles of our feet, and where the Lord will place his name amongst his people."

President Hinckley smoke of the millennial vision as quoted in Isaiah, "And he shall set up an aensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth."

President Hinckley then concluded with this statement, talking of the pioneer blood which flows in our veins, "It's the essence of our courage to face modern day mountains and our commitment to carry on.  The faith of those early pioneers burns still, and nations are being blessed by latter-day pioneers who possess a clear vision of this work of the Lord.  The footsteps that made such a deep impression over the heartland of America, makes similar impressions in countries across the world... Step by faithful step we walk together to a glorious destiny, building the Kingdom of God on Earth, and preparing the hearts and minds of people everywhere to come unto Christ, the Redeemer and Savior of the World."

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Book Review: Handcarts to Zion

This book was written in 1960 and was the first book about the handcarts.  There had been other series of stories written for the newspaper.  It was written by Leroy R. Hafen and Ann W. Hafen.  It covers the entire history of the handcarts, and all ten of the handcart companies that came to Utah between 1856 and 1860.

It uses the Millennial Star to show why the handcarts were used.  The most famous quote from the book is in the introduction.  "But at only one period, 1856-1860, was the handcart employed for mass migration--the most remarkable travel experiment in the history of Western America."

The Hafens had an ancestor who as a small girl was part of the last handcart company.  The bias of favoring the church and the handcart plan is part of the book, and is to be expected.

The appendices are great.  They include poetry and hymns important to the pioneers, diaries, story of the rescue, and rosters of each of the companies (although not complete as Isaac Wardle is missing from the Martin Handcart Company roster.)

If one is studying the handcarts, this is the place to start that study.  It includes an interesting graph of all the companies, the number of immigrants, the number of handcarts, the number of deaths.  250 or eight and a half percent of the handcart pioneers died along the trail.  The majority, 150 were part of the Martin Company.

This work is important to our genealogy as numerous ancestors were part of these companies.  This includes, as part of the Martin Company, Isaac, who says he was responsible for digging graves for those who had passed away, The Ashtons, William and Sarah Ann and their daughters, Betsy, Sarah, Mary, Elizabeth and newborn  baby Sarah Ann. Sarah Ann, Betsy, Elizabeth and the baby Sarah Ann all passed away on the journey, Elizabeth in Boston and the others along the trail.

John and Mary Wardle, and their youngest son James were part of the 9th company, The Robinson Handcart Company.

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

Isaac Wardle History: Chapter Five; The Sea Voyage

 Chapter Five: Ocean Voyage
“Went on Board the Ship Orisen with 840 Passengers on Board”

Farewell to Thee England

Farewell to thee England—bright home of my sires,
Thou pride of the freeman and boast of the brave,
I have loved thee—and never till being expires
Can I learn to forget thee, thou star of the wave.

Farewell to thee England, a long, long farewell,
To every dear scene of my infancy’s hours
Ne’er more shall I roam through each moss-covered dell,
Nor pluck the sweet gems of thy blossomy bow’rs.

Farewell to thee England, and farewell to all
Whose love hath yet hallow’d my pathway below,
Though sadly I leave thee, I would not recall
One hour of the past for the present to know.

Though sorrow may cast its deep shade o’er my soul,
When mem’ry recalls one dear form to my mind,
And anguish of spirit which passeth control,
May crush the lone heart where that form is enshrined.

I wish not to linger thy beauties among,
I dare not be false to the God I adore,
Henceforward my lyre to His praises is strung,
And to Him I relinquish those memories of yore.

Yes England, I leave thee, all dear though thou art,
A country more precious lies over the wave,
With hope for thee, Albion, I turn to depart,
God guard thee my country—protect thee and save.

The rose of thy beauty may fade from thy brow,
The day of thy glory in darkness decline
But a halo of splendour encircles thee now,
Which in regions immortal more brightly shall shine.

There are hearts on thy bosom shall hallow thee yet,
There are spirits too noble, and feelings too pure,
There are creatures too worthy for God to forget,
Whose love like His goodness will ever endure.

His blessing be on thee—thou land of my sires,
Thou pride of the freeman, and boast of the brave,
I love thee—and never though being expires
Can I learn to forget thee—thou star of the wave.
IER  (Hafen and Hafen)

After Isaac had worked in Walsall for a couple of years, saving money to emigrate, he returned to Coalville to bid his family farewell.  He was the first of his family to emigrate.  “…I went to father and mother, brothers and sister again till the spring of 1856.”  (Wardle, Isaac)  To me, this implies that he was there for some weeks.
Isaac’s family, in addition to his parents, brothers and sister, included two sisters-in-law and a brother in-law, two nieces and a nephew.  However they were not all living at the family home at this time.  Thomas had married Mary Ann Price in 1851 and at the time Isaac left England had two children, Jane three years-old and Charles newborn.  (Family Search)Both children would pass away in their infancy so Isaac would not see them again.  [Patti Call, genealogist, documents the wedding took place 30 Oct 1854 in Coleorton, Leicestershire.  William Wardle was a witness.]  (Call)
William had married Catherine White on Christmas day of 1854 in Whitwick outside Coalville.  (Family Search)  (Call)  As weddings were not as big an affair as they are today, it is not definite that Isaac would have attended the wedding.  However since it was Christmas Day, he may have been there.  Eliza was born to this union, and would have been a couple months old when Isaac left.  She passed away just before her third birthday, before her parents immigrated to Utah.
Hannah had married Frederick Udy two months before Isaac bid the family farewell.  (Family Search)  Patti Call has documented this weeding taking place 18 May 1855 and witnessed by William and Catherine Wardle.  (Call)
    There were siblings Isaac would never see again.  His sister Hannah, did not immigrate to Utah with the rest of the family.  However it is believed she and her husband immigrated to Australia.  (Wardle, Orrin)  However genealogist Patti Call has documented that she moved with her husband to the Easter U.S., Pennsylvania and Maryland.  There is no record that she ever joined the church.  Hannah would have immigrated before 1860 as she and her husband were included in the census of that year in Pennsylvania. (Call)
    Also the brother just younger than Isaac, Joseph, did not emigrate.  Patti Call again documents that he married in 1859, but passed away shortly after this.  At age 23 he died of small pox and pneumonia.  His wife, Elizabeth Williams Wardle, did immigrate to Utah and it is likely Isaac met her, as she lived with Thomas for a time, as well as with his father.
    His younger brother James would immigrate to Utah with his parents in 1860.  William would follow with his family in 1862, and Thomas and his family would immigrate in 1873.
    Back to 1856, Isaac wrote, “On the 19th of May I bid them all goodby[e] and sailed for Liverpool.”   (Wardle, Isaac)  Perhaps the sentiment in saying goodbye was similar to that expressed by John Southwell, a man 23 years old who also traveled aboard the Horizon.  “Sad were the scenes when parting arrived… seeing between my dear old mother and myself, is heart rending in the extreme… you will surely realize the agony of spirit we endure.  (Southwell, BYU)
Liverpool is overland from Coalville; however there was a network of canals.  Perhaps Isaac traveled by canal boat to Liverpool, and this is why he used the word “sailed.”  However it is more likely he was talking about his voyage from Liverpool aboard the Horizon.  The most likely way to travel from Coalville to Liverpool would have been by train.  The Baileys also lived in the Coalville area.  They would be on the Horizon with Isaac, and traveled by train.  “Many of the Saints went to the station to see us off.”  (Bailey, BYU) The walking distance from Coalville to Liverpool is 113 miles.  (Google Maps)  As they boarded the boat on the 23rd, Isaac had only four days to travel to the Liverpool docks.
It is possible Isaac traveled as a group from Coalville (this likely would have included the Baileys.)

Always missionaries escorted the departing members to Liverpool and once in the port of embarkation the passenger were ushered immediately on board ship.  Not for a moment were they left to the mercy of “runners” of professional shipping agents.  Watchmen were appointed to stand guard while the vessel lay in harbor to prevent any who did not belong from passing among them. (Larson, p 130)

Because of these arrangements it was not likely Isaac had any trouble in Liverpool, while waiting to board the ship.  However the Church, had advised that large groups emigrating, travel with a third party because of the rough crowd around the docks.   “If, when considerable numbers are coming from a Conference to go in the same ship, their President, Pastor, or someone who is accustomed to business transactions, will accompany them on ship board, they may save their inexperienced brethren much expanse and grief, by protecting them from the hordes of ruffians who lie in wait for their prey about the docks, stations, and lodging houses.”  (MS XVII 1855, p. 42)
Another emigrant boarding the Horizon at the same time seemed to have had some trouble.  “As soon as we got upon the pier, there was men, lots of them that come to us, we’ll take your things &c, &c.  Aren’t you some of the brethren?  What brethren say I.”  The emigrant then found Jessie Haven who got them a porter and their items delivered to the Horizon.  (Hamilton, BYU) Another passenger described Liverpool as “the dirtiest place we ever saw.” (Bleake, BYU)
Isaac’s voyage across the Atlantic was not a guaranteed situation:

Crossing the Atlantic in the 1850s could be daunting.  Although steam-powered ships were available, Church leaders chartered sailing vessels because of tight finances.  Going west, these ships typically had to battle contrary winds that made the voyage last six weeks or longer.  During these seemingly endless days, emigrants had to endure cramped, poorly ventilated berths, some of them three levels below deck…  The food was monotonous and often unsavory, and the water was sometimes so bad the people would drink it only is desperation.  New to the sea, most emigrants retched with seasickness for at least a few days, some of them for weeks.  Diseases were always a risk and would spread quickly.  A few deaths—sometimes many—were almost a certainty.  (Olsen p 8)

 Passengers boarded the Horizon at the Bramley Moore Dock.  The dock was built in 1848. (Wikipedia)  John Beecroft remembered the stack of luggage on the dock.  “…Of all the sights that I ever saw, it was the most astonishing.  Luggage was piled on a piece of ground in front of the ship to a considerable [height], and hundreds were busy in getting in their luggage.  (Beecroft, BYU)
Mormon emigration on board ship was much different than that of other emigrant groups:

   When all were on board the Mormon Agent arrived to organize them for their overseas journey.  First he appointed a president to preside over the entire company which varied in size from occasional small groups to four and five hundred.  The president, together with two counsellors were usually selected from returning missionaries and were presented to the company for a sustaining vote.  The presidency of the company now proceeded to divide the ship into “wards” or “branches” with bishops or presiding elders and assigning to each a particular part of the ship.
   The presiding elders soon acquainted the members of their respective wards with customary procedure on such journeys.  After rising at an appointed early hour the first duty was to thoroughly clean their portion of the ship and dispose of all refuse overboard.  Then, they would assemble for prayed before breakfast.  This latter, the emigrants prepared themselves with cooking apparatus provided by the ship.  Beyond the barest necessities for preparation of meals, the passengers provided their own utensils, as they also did their bedding.  Breakfast over, and necessary clearing away of dishes, etc. accomplished, the day belonged to each passenger to divide between minor duties and amusements as he chose.  At eight or nine at night prayer was again conducted in each ward and all retired.  Except in case of married couples and children, the sexes were berthed apart in strict compliance with provisions of emigration laws.  (Larson p 130)

When Britain considered modifications to their emigration regulations in 1854, they called upon Samuel Richards, then president of the British Mission, to testify.  The reporter covering this concluded, “There is one thing which…they can do—viz.,teach Christian ship owners how to send poor people decently, cheaply, and healthfully across the Atlantic.”  (Larson p 131)
Charles Dickens, a few years after Isaac’s voyage on the Horizon, visited a Mormon immigrant ship that was leaving the London area with 800 Saints on board.  He expected to find a rough crowd.  After praising the organization of the Mormon ships and immigration, and observing the people he reported:

I afterwards learned that a Dispatch was sent home by the Captain before he struck out into the wide Atlantic, highly extolling the behaviour of these emigrants, and the perfect order and propriety of all their social arrangements. What is in store for the poor people on the shores of the Great Salt Lake, what happy delusions they are labouring under now, on what miserable blindness their eyes may be opened then, I do not pretend to say.  But I went on board their ship to bear testimony against them if they deserved it, as I fully believed they would; to my great astonishment, they did not deserve it; and my predispositions and tendencies must not affect me as an honest witness, I went over the Amazon's side, feeling it impossible to deny that, so far, some remarkable influence had produced a remarkable result, which better-known influences have often missed.  (Dickens)

While in the harbor, after they had boarded the ship, if they hadn’t already done so, those traveling by the PEF signed a document laying out expectations:

We the undersigned, do herby agree with and bind ourselves to the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, in the following conditions, viz…
That in consideration of the aforesaid Company emigrating or transporting us, and our necessary luggage from Great Britain to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, according to the rules of the Company and general insturctions of their authorized agent:
We do severally and jointly promise and bind ourselves to continue with, and obey the instructions of, the Agent appointed to superintend our passage thither; that we will receipt for our passages previous to arriving at the ports of [Boston, New York, Philadelphia;]
And that on our arrival in the Great Salt Lake Valley we will hold ourselves, our time and our labour, subject to the appropriation of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company until full cost for our emigration is paid, with interest if required.  (Larson p 228, see appendix to this chapter for illustration.)

P.A.M. Taylor compared the English emigrants to Australia to the Mormon experience.  “Far more of the members of a Mormon company participated in a positive fashion than did Australian emigrants.  They acted as counselors, ward presidents, committee men, cleaners, cooks and so on.” (Taylor, P.A.M. p 195)  Another difference was the amount of praying done aboard the different vessels.  Prayer was seldom heard on a “gentile” ship.  Aboard a Mormon ship company prayers were held morning and evening.  (ibid)
Mormon structure on the boats, and later on the trail reflected the organization of a regular ward.  “But the Mormon system for the converts’ Atlantic voyage was handed down from year to year.  While the Mormons were using sailing ships, the evidence suggests that they quickly built up a form of organization which was derived from principles already familiar within the Church on land.  (ibid p 207)
This included a company captain and counselors; in this case the captain was Edward Martin with Jesse Haven and George Waugh assisting.  It also included bishops of each group of 100 of which there were nine.  Other assignments were Sergeant of the guard, chorister, clerk and historian who would keep the company journal.  Edward Martin commented, “We have got our organization pretty well matured, and all are willing to play their part.  We have nine wards, nine cooks, and ten men in each watch of the guard which is kept up night and day.”   (MS xviii, 1856, Martin, p 411)  The captain made it a point to visit all areas of the ship several times daily, “I make it my business to visit every part of the ship six or seven times a day, but more particularly when I rise up and before I lie down, and I expect to do so during the voyage.” (Ibid)
The passengers were all willing to do their share of the work, and many were called to leadership positions.  “We were grateful to the Saints for their willing promptness in rising up and doing what ever they have been called upon to do, and for their readiness to carry out to the best of their knowledge and ability the instructions that have been given to them by those presiding over them.” (Jaques, Bell)
Robert McBride was the song leader.  Also several members of the Manchester Branch Choir were among the passengers, and entertained frequently.  This included singing for the Captain and crew of the ship as well as the passengers.  There were also a couple of violinists, a clarinetist and a tambourine player who played for weddings and dances.  Young men were organized into guards with F.C. Robinson as Sergeant of the guard.
The Ship Horizon was a new vessel, having just been commissioned the year before.   The Monthly Nautical Review documented its launch on April 1855, “At Ellsworth, Me, [Maine] a three-deck freighting ship, about 1800 tons, called the Horizon.” (Monthly Nautical Review)  The Horizon had three masts. (McBride, BYU)
The most alarming thing about this voyage was the lateness of the season for emigrating.  This was due to difficulty in securing vessels, and the amount of Saints who put themselves in a position of having to emigrate, by selling goods and leaving jobs.  President Richards stated, “…The emigration will be somewhat late this season in getting off from Liverpool… The scarcity of ships for the more northern of the American ports has caused a considerable rise in the prices of passage… We cannot know of the scarcity or plentitude of ships any great length of time before securing one, as this depends upon fluctuations of commerce, and also upon the winds.” (MS xviii, 1856, p 218)  Brigham Young, upon learning of the late departure wrote, “The emigrations are all late, owing I suppose to the difficulty in obtaining ships.”  Brigham Young felt the emigrants should be arriving on the East coast in early May.  The Hafens explained the lateness in this way:

Various causes contributed to this result, and responsibility is hard to place.  Throughout January and February, President Richards had continually urged the necessity of getting off early.  The winter’s severity, with hard times and high prices, sharpened the Saints’ desire to emigrate.  Many of these, carried away with the idea of gathering to Zion that season, left their various employments even before arrangements had been made for their transportation.  The result was that some of them were left to choose between the alternatives of remaining in Great Britain during the winter to starve or go to the poor house, or else run the risk of a late journey across the plains.  They chose the latter course, in which the presidency of the British Mission, seeing no better way out of the difficulty, acquiesced, and chartered the ships, “Horizon” and ‘Thornton.” (Hafen and Hafen pp 47-48)

The Horizon left the dock May 23, two p.m. and was tugged and anchored in the Mercy River.  (Openshaw, BYU)  There it waited for clearance.  While anchored in the river there was an altercation between some of the crew of the boat and the mates:

…then the sailors and the ship officers got into a quarrel and began to fight. This almost frightened some of the emigrants to death, but the first mate ran into the cabin and came out facing the men that was after him with a pistol in each hand caused them to stop very quick. He told them the first man that moved he would shoot him down. He stood there and kept them back till a signal of distress was sent up and it was hardly any time before boats came alongside with policeman and all the crew was put in irons and taken to shore. The first, second, and third mate and the ship carpenter were all that was left on board so we had to lay on the river 3 or 4 days till another lot of hands could be got.  (McBride, BYU)

Soon after this we had a little belligerent display between the mates and some of the crew. I did not see the commencement of the affair, but I learned that some of the crew demurred to obeying orders, and that a regular fisticuffing took place between three or four. Two or three bloody faces figured in the scene. I was up on deck in time to witness a little-not very civil "jaw," between the first mate and one or two of the crew. The mate paced the deck, flourishing a Colt's revolver, and swearing and threatening grandly. But he did not use his weapon. By the bye, I do not like to see much threatening with mortal weapons. My maxim is to keep them still till wanted, and, when necessary, use them, and over with it. That seems to me most consistent with "Mormonism." As for much threatening and bragging, that is the appropriate business of bullies. However, a number of the crew were sent ashore, and we had fresh men in their places. The mate complained of the refractory ones, that they were a set of "blacklegs," and said that they came on board to plunder the passengers and the rest of the crew. They charged him with being drunk, and "no man."  (MS xviii 1856, p 411, Jaques)

Many of the crew were replaced at the last moment.  Some of the Mormons volunteered to fill these positions.  “Some of our men (Saints) said they could fill their places.”  (Bailey, BYU)  It is not recorded whether or not their offer was accepted, but as there is no indication of Mormons serving on the crew, except as cooks, it would appear not.
Isaac appears on the roster for the ship.  “Mormon Emigration Roster Ship Horizon: “Martin Company, Isaac Wardle, 20, Collier, England, PEF yes, p 10” (Handcart)
While anchored in the river, the boat, passengers and the ship itself underwent inspection before it was cleared to sail.  The passengers went through inspection by the ship doctor, as a cursory measure to avoid contagious disease in such tight quarters.  A couple of passengers were returned to shore as a result.  (handcart) The ship and its officer were inspected to make sure they were complying with applicable laws with regards to diet and safety.  The boat received her clearance and all was ready to proceed with the voyage.
On May 25 the steam tug Great Conquest came to the ship (about 10 a.m.) (Openshaw, BYU)  It brought not only the Captain of the boat, but also Franklin D. Richards and other missionaries to see them off.  This was a Sunday and there was a meeting held as the tug pulled them out to sea, 20 miles.  Franklin D. Richards and Cyrus H. Wheelock spoke giving instructions and blessing them on their voyage.  (Hamilton, BYU)  The company was also organized with nine wards of 100, with Edward Martin as company captain assisted by Jesse Haven and George P. Waugh.  Also two weddings were performed.  (Jaques, Church History)  John Beecroft told of the meeting and President Richards address:

He addressed us in a very effective manner. He observed that we were chiefly Saints that had been a long time with church. Named that a few years ago the first elder came to England and sow the seeds of life that [we] were the crop that were being harvested. That we were going under peculiar circumstances to the valleys of the mountains. A many ships had gone out under peculiar circumstances, under propitious circumstances but none had gone out under circumstances so favorable as those under which we were going out. The captain were one of the best men that goes out of Liverpool, and was willing to indulge us as far as he could, consistent with the regulations of the ship. That some of us had been receiving instructions for 15 years and were now about to put it into practice. But if we would carry out our religion, there should not a soul be lost, nor anyone come to much harm. He urged upon us to act as Saints one towards another and we should land safe and be blessed from now to our journey's end and that the angels should be with us to guard the ship and us. The elements should be controlled in our favor, that the next ship should take all our names to go to the valley before us some months and we should be met by teams From the Valley.  (Beecroft, BYU)
 
After the discourse a couple elders sang.  Brother Wheelock closed with prayer.  Those not traveling with them returned to England on the tug.  As the tug took the missionaries back to England, the passengers gave them six hearty cheers.  (ibid)  A Pilot continued on board to guide them through the channel.  He would later catch a ship back to Liverpool, taking mail with him.
The passengers were very emotional, and songs and poems expressed many of these feelings.  Josiah Rogerson wrote, or quoted this verse:

Goodbye to England!
Soon out upon the vast expanse.
The vessel sped along.
And many look a parting glance,
And sooth their hearts with song. (Rogerson, Church History)

The poem “Farewell to Thee England” (which introduces this chapted) was penned on board the Horizon, the author identified by initials only, I.E.R. (Hafen and Hafen) “The brethren and sisters congregated upon the deck, and, forming into divers groups, made the air vocal with their songs of praise and joy to the Lord their God, for the deliverance vouchsafed to them from Babylon.” (MS xviii 1856 p 411, Jaques)
John Beecroft wrote of the activity the first day.  “All is grand, but solemn. The Saints are singing in groups while the children are frisking about. Some are busy with their books, others with their music; one has just turned out with his fiddle which I am very glad to see for having heard about him, I want [to] hear his abilities.” The ship was full of excitement with prospects of the voyage, meeting new friends and fellow passengers, and adjusting to life on board ship.  The noise was so loud that night Brother Beecroft had difficulty sleeping, “…in the midst of noise from above, beneath and around.”  (Beecroft, BYU)
John Jacques described the officers of the ship.  “The captain was pleasant, courteous, and kind, taking much interest in the welfare of the passengers.  The first mate was a Yankee, tall, square, dark-visaged, dark haired, ill-dispositioned, a good seaman but a harsh ruler of men.  The second mate, an Englishman, was a pleasant good-natured old salt, and a good rough seaman, though not as rough-tempered as the first mate.” (Jacques, Church History)  According to Josiah Rogerson the crew consisted of 25 able-bodied seamen, including officers.  (Rogerson, BYU)
A description of the passengers was given by John Beecroft in his journal.  “It is a truly wonderful sight to see so many on ship board of all ages, sizes, complexions, and shapes. Some appear quite respectable while others appear to be quite poor.… We are from all parts, England, Scotland, Wales, and Germany. We have old men with their grandchildren on board. Quite a many very aged men and women some in spectacles. And generally speaking, the old people take [it] the best. We have quite a number who go with crutches of both sexes….  Some are very stout, straight young men likely to build up Zion. Some are repulsive in appearance, while others are interesting.  (Beecroft, BYU)
There was a need to prepare for the voyage and make everything fast, although there was some resistance.  “After you left us on Sunday evening, we lashed all the luggage, and thus prepared for seasickness. The Saints thought us very particular at the time, but morning did not make its appearance before they began to realize the benefit, and expressed themselves that it was good to have a head.” (MS xviii 1856 p.411, Martin)
The Horizon was a very fast ship.  “We had a beautiful voyage, at times sailed very fast as our ship was nearly a full clipper and did some fast sailing when the wind was favorable.” (ibid)  John Beecroft and John Jaques both commented on their passing every other sailing ship that was traveling the same direction.  There was only one ship which outpaced the Horizon, and that was a British royal mail steam packet ship, Ana. (Jacques, Beecroft, BYU)
The conditions on the boat were less than ideal.  Aboard the ship were over 850 Mormon passengers.  (John Jaques documents 856 passengers, while the BYU Library indicates 950)  John Jaques bragged that it was the most Mormon emigrants in one ship up to that time.  Cleanliness was difficult with a large group.  “Whatever improvement took place over the years, cleanliness was hard to achieve in quarters overcrowded with people and belongings, the families often coming from the poorest of homes.” (Taylor, P.A.M. p 189)  The Saints kept the boat clean.  John Southwell recorded that Captain Read received praise in Boston from the inspectors for the cleanliness of the ship.  Captain Reed explained, “It was entirely on account of 800 of the cleanest people that had ever boarded his vessel. …Every morning on the voyage the ship was scrubbed from top to stern and from bottom to top.  The bedding aired and disinfected as well as the ship.” (Southwell, BYU)
Privacy and good hygiene were hard to come by.  However recent regulation had made changes in this area:

Some years had to pass, and several statutes had to be enacted, before single men and single women were accommodated separately.  It was even later that sanitation reached a decent level… As for washing the emigrants had little water for that purpose, but if they chose to use some of their scanty ration, they could go nowhere but to their berth or its immediate vicinity.  Any laundering had to be done on the open deck with salt water.  Passengers had to bring their own bedding and equipment, one Greenock merchant recommending them to take a barrel with hasp and lock, for their provisions; and two-gallon water can for every two persons; a teapot; a canister for tea and sugar; a frying pan, an iron pot for cooking; plates, cups and bowls; cutlery; and a chamber pot with lid.  (ibid p 179)

Isaac would have had quarters with the other single men.  This even applied to single men who traveled with their families.  They would sleep in the single men’s area, and then be allowed with their families during the day.  Therefore, Isaac and Langley Bailey, (Isaac’s friend) would have been in the same dormitory while he was traveling on the Horizon.  “The vessel had three decks which the Saints would occupy.... It was necessary for young men to have one division alone for the night and access to the wards of their families where they could take their meals together and be near the cooking galley where all the meals were issued by a head cook who had sole charge of that apartment.”  (Southwell, BYU)  “There were 50 young men and 75 young ladies in the number of 900 emigrants.”  (Goodaker, BYU)
Bedding was not provided.  The passengers had to bring their own.  Some purchased mattresses in Liverpool.  (Hamilton, BYU)  The berths were described by John Jaques:

The steerage passengers, including all but the cabin passengers, occupied two 'tween decks. The berths, each about six feet by four feet six and made of rough boards to hold two persons each, were two feet in height, nailed up along the side of the vessel, the ends to the vessel's sides, the lower four about two feet from the floor. There were also some berths in the centre of the vessel. Two cubic feet more space was allowed to each passenger on the lower than on the upper deck, which made the lower deck more roomy and sweeter than the upper deck, though the former was not so light as the latter. (Jaques, Church History)

The nails holding the berths together must have come loose at times with the rough seas.  One night a couple of berths fell down.  One time it trapped the people in the lower berth with boards and upper passengers until they could be extricated.  Several of the passengers were displaced and had to sleep on the floor for the night.  (Beecroft, BYU)  “My berth having partly broken down, I and Brother William Paul repaired it.” (Jaques, Bell p 95)
In 1855 British Parliament passed a law affecting the conditions aboard ships.  This set certain standards for emigrant ships.  These included the minimal rations, having a ship surgeon and steward and ship cooks.  The result of these changes was to increase the cost of passage, but also to improve the conditions aboard ship:

Some features however remained constant.  The voyage lasted four, five or six weeks.  Officers and crew were preoccupied with their work of sailing the ship, and could concern themselves little with emigrants’ welfare.  Nor would the owners, like a modern shipping line, take care to protect their reputation by close control over their employees and concern for high standards of accommodation.   They knew that no emigrant was likely to make the voyage twice. (Taylor, P.A.M. p 178)

The cooks would generally heat the meals, which were prepared by the individual families.  They also tended the fires, and tried to keep hot water available for tea.  There was a general ship cook, and each ward also had a cook assigned. A young man described the head cook.  “It was while I was on board this ship that I got my first desire to be a cook. One day I stood watching the ship's cook, a big Mulatto, making pancakes. I became so interested watching him pour out the batter and flip the cakes that I asked him to let my try it. ‘Sure, enuf, boy!’ he said, and I was given my first experience in cooking.”  (Harrison, BYU)
“Mormons shared with others the improvement in diet… As the ration scale became more complete, cooking rather than food may have seemed the outstanding problem.  It was exceedingly hard for hundreds of emigrants to do their cooking as individuals or families.”  (Taylor, P.A.M. p. 191)  Mormon vessels got around this by cooking in wards.  Even so, conditions around the fires aboard the Horizon were hectic.  John Jaques explained in a letter for the Millennial Star, “But O! the awful siege of the cook's galley, the first day or two. Sebastopol! could that compare with it? The cooks had it hot inside and outside of their house.”  He explained that when people were seasick, the rush in the galley was not as great.  But when they were feeling better, “That day the cooks had another hard time of it.  Appetites were returning with usual or rather increased power.  There was a fearful amount of pies and cakes to be baked.  Cooking for 800 hungry people at one galley is not a trifling affair, especially when each family or person has a private pot or dish.”   (MS xviii pp 412-413, Jaques) Patience was necessary around the cook house.  (Beecroft, Church History)  One day a passenger lacked patience which resulted in a confrontation.  “Disturbance and fight in the cookhouse, in consequence of Brother Green pushing past the guards. He kicked Brother Franklin severely.”  (Jaques, Bell)
The diet on boat was generally salt pork and salt beef, potatoes, sea biscuits, flour, rice, oatmeal, peas, sugar, tea, mustard, pepper, salt and water. Provisions were ample.  “We had plenty of provisions, water, and firing.” (Rogerson, BYU)   “Our provisions on shipboard and during our land journey have been of the very best quality and in such abundance that we have not been able to use more than one half of the quantity allowed to us. (Bleake, BYU) Hard sailor’s biscuits were part of the diet, “made of very coarse flour, so hard we could scarcely break them.”  (Steward, BYU)  Heber McBride added, “some dried fruit sometimes” to the list of provisions.  Heber also indicated the water “would stink so that we could hardly use it for 2 or 3 days then it would be good again.”  (McBride, BYU)  Perhaps this was the bottom of a barrel.
In addition to the ship’s provisions, some of the emigrants had extra food they brought with them.  John Southwell indicated he had a salted ham, cheddar cheese, plum pudding and cake.  “So you can see we were independent of Mr. Sea Cook for a variety of good things.”  (Southwell, BYU)  I like to think of Isaac’s mother sending him with something when he left home, but I am sure there was no great luxuries.
The second day of their voyage was rough.   “We encountered a gale that came nearly capsizing our ship…. It came nearly fatal in some as not only good turned topsy-turvy but some of our old a feeble people were felled to the deck with such violence that they were rendered helpless for a few days.” (Southwell, BYU)  Several other passengers mention this storm.  “Storms arose and the ship tipped to and fro and delayed us from a straight voyage.” (Clark, BYU)  “The morning the vessel began to rock and one might hear and see them.  Heaving and fricking at every part of the vessel.” (Openshaw, BYU)  John Jaques documents the need to retie items, but does not indicate that the ship was in any danger. (Jaques, BYU)
Most of the passengers had their first turn of sea sickness as a result.  Henry Hamilton got castor oil from Jessie Haven as he was “bound up in his bowels.”  It seemed to help.  Seasickness seemed to affect the passengers differently:

Some were eating like farmers, others were vomiting like drunken men. Some emptying slop pails, others running with boilers and kettles. Some lay in bed sick, others sat and leaned against ought they could find while on deck. The Saints, men, women, and children, lay on deck one against another like pigs. Some could manage to walk about, but staggered like drunken men, while husbands had to paddle and otherwise carry their wives to the privy and other places. Some seemed as if nothing was the matter with them, while others were singing in groups. (Beecroft, BYU)

Seasickness changed our countenances to a pitiful, pallid hue. As a general thing songs were discarded, while the efforts of the few, who had the hardihood to strike up occasionally, seemed but a mockery of our woe. A soberer company of passengers than we were that day, you need scarcely wish to see. Such a worshiping of buckets and tins, and unmentionable pans, I shall not attempt to describe. For my part, I paid the most devoted attention to the slop-pail about every half hour.  (MS xviii 1856 p 411, Jaques)
 
After most of the passengers recovered from the first bout of seasickness, music and dancing were again popular.  “The sick persons rapidly recovered. Songs and rejoicings began to prevail again, and in the evening a fiddle and a tambourine, in skillful hands, caused some “’to trip the light fantastic toe’” (ibid)
Illness was also a consequence of crowded conditions. …Some illness was to be expected: seasickness, infant disorders, the debility of age, even if epidemics were to be avoided.”  (Taylor, P.A.M. p 190)  John Jaques reported that there was measles on board.  (Jaques, Church History)   His own daughter contracted measles.  (Jaques, BYU)
The crowded conditions on the Horizon presented other difficulties.  “The simplest recreation was difficult.  Even walking presented a problem, when large American ships, carrying 800 or 900 passengers [such as the Horizon] might have deckhouses obstructing the only open space.” (Taylor, P.A.M. p193)
The leadership would try to have activities.  Aboard the Horizon this included tent making.  The women made 45 tents and eight wagon covers.  (Jaques, Bell) There were morning and evening prayers with singing.  John Beecroft reported that several wards had teas, with conversation, speeches, singing and joke making.  (Beecroft, BYU)
One young lady described the activities they enjoyed.  “When the sea was calm we could occupy our time in reading, sewing, and taking our walk on deck.  Also listening to the sailors singing while they were pumping the water out from the bottom of the ship. They never worked without singing, so they could all pull together. Then it was a grand sight to see the sun go down.”  (Steward, BYU)  “The crew occasionally, by way of variety, give us some of their characteristic songs, while at work.”  (Jaques, Bell p 87)  Several other passengers also mentioned the beautiful sunsets.  “Beautiful sunset. A dark heavy cloud parallel to the horizon, and not elevated much above it, set off a beautiful band of deep orange color.” (Jaques, Bell)  John Jaques provided this description in a letter sent back by Captain Reed as the ship was passing Ireland.  “The sun shines beautifully, and young and old are assembled on deck, with light hearts and cheerful faces.  I hear no murmuring or grumbling.  All is peace and harmony in our floating town.” (M.S xviii, 1856 p 413, Jaques)
The children made due in their circumstances.  “The children make themselves happy, both above and below deck. Marbles, skipping ropes, and all the available paraphernalia of childhood's games are called into request. The older boys amuse themselves by tugging at the ropes with the sailors.” (MS xviii p 413, Jaques)  There is no mention of school for the children aboard the Horizon, but other ships organized schools, particularly for the children.  (See Larson p 137)
John Southwell documented some interesting events that aren’t documented by any of the other passengers.  He indicated that a school of dolphins was sighted, (John Jaques also documented dolphins) a large drove of porpoises, a whale whose spout “looked like a thousand rainbows,” and a large man-eating shark.  He indicates the first mate shot the shark, and it was brought on the boat with a harpoon and placed in tubs with chemicals so as to extract its oil.  He describes a large “exhibition wedding” on the topmast performed by Captain Reed.  The couple, members of the Church, and the Captain were slowly lifted skyward in a scaffold, and held by the seamen while the wedding was performed.  When they were lowered they each were greeted by over 100 people.  The deck was cleared and music and dancing reigned the rest of the night.  (Southwell, BYU)  Brother Beecroft played violin when Brother Robinson, Captain of the guard, was married.  Someone else played tambourine.  (Beecroft, BYU)
John Jaques documented four weddings taking place, but said they were all performed by Elders in the Church.  Perhaps a couple was married a second time for this “exhibition”.  One of the weddings was performed in the Captain’s cabin. Jaques does talk about dancing and music after one of the weddings. (Jaques, BYU)   It is not known to us if Isaac participated in the dances.  He did not give much detail in his history.  But if he did his chances of a partner would have been good, with the greater number of young women.
The story of the shark is corroborated but a slightly different version.  “When we were a few days out a large shark followed the vessel. One of the Saints died and he was buried at sea. We never saw the shark anymore.”  (Pay, BYU)
Mary Pay, four years old, also tells an interesting story which happened later in the voyage:

When we were sailing through the banks of Newfoundland we were in a dense fog for several days. The sailors were kept night and days ringing bells and blowing fog horns. One day I was on deck with my father when I saw a mountain of ice in the sea, close to the ship, I said, "Look, father, look."  He went as white as a ghost and said, "Oh my girl," at that moment the fog parted and the sun shone brightly till the ship was out of danger, when the fog closed on us again.  (Pay, BYU)

Several other Saints documented the fog.   "…Went on deck and found many seamen watching because of the mist lest we should come in contact with icebergs or fishing vessels and was cautioned not to make noise on deck, so that any word might be passed from forecastle to aft if needful. Ship going at the rate of 8 miles an hour.”  (Beecroft, BYU)  Samuel Openshaw indicates that the sailors were very busy and they sounded the horn.  (Openshaw, BYU)  However no others mentioned an iceberg.  John Jaques noted:

Tues. [June] 17: foggy wet morning.  Fine in the middle of the afternoon.  …Saw a grampus spouting water on our left.  Men on the lookout all around the ship watching for ice and vessels.  Had made 46 degrees.  Sailed six to nine knots per hour through the day.  Side breeze.  Foggy night.  …Passengers requested to be as still as they conveniently could, so that the officers of the ship could hear and be heard.  (Jaques, Bell p 98)

Good weather brought most of the passengers on deck and they would be more active and have better appetites.  “Also calm and beautiful day. We promenaded on deck. The captain appears to be a kind hearted man. Also the crew and the mates are an agreeable company.”  (Openshaw, BYU)  The deck was more crowded when the weather was good.  (Beecroft, BYU)
Several passengers talked of the prayer meetings.  “We have prayer meetings night and morning, besides testifying meetings. We are called from our beds at five in the morning by the sound of the cornet. Also invited at night to bed by ten by the same.” (Openshaw, BYU)  Later in the voyage the times for cornet call changed to six and nine.  (Beecroft, BYU)
Sundays were reserved for worship.  This included morning and evening meetings, as well as partaking of the sacrament.  Speakers were from the leadership including the company captain and counselors as well as the Bishops of each group of 100.  In the morning there was a general meeting, and in the afternoon a ward meeting where sacrament was presented.  “We enjoyed the spirit of good in our midst.”  (Openshaw, BYU)  There was also no cooking on Sundays.  “We have to cook none at Sundays.  Consequently, we have to prepare Sunday’s dinner on Saturday.” (ibid)
Initially there were two boat wide meetings on Sunday morning and afternoon.  After the first couple weeks, the afternoon meeting was a ward meeting.  The Spirit was very strong:

“At about 2 p.m. we met in fellowship meeting which was opened by Elder Brodrick [POSSIBLY: Broderick] who gave liberty to speak as the spirit should dictate. Elder Wadsworth bore testimony and said the spirit was in our midst and if we would cultivate we should have a manifestation. Sister Rosehannah Pears bore testimony and spoke in tongues which was interpreted by Elder Tifton [Tipton] viz that every soul should be brought through and go to the Valley inasmuch as we would be faithful. After a few had born testimony Sister Franklin bore testimony and spoke in tongues which was interpreted by Brother Tifton [Tipton]. I bore testimony and felt well. We had a good time. (Beecroft, BYU)

It is very likely that Isaac served as a guard, even though he does not mention it  in his history.  He did provide considerable service upon the plains, and I suspect this started long before reaching the plains:

First mate pled guilty of disliking our guarding.  Said no women go on deck without guarding ways and manners, with other immigrants.  Our morality hard upon those outside.  Makes these sailors good whether or not, better than they otherwise would be, better then they wish to be.  Hard to keep outside of us and hard to get in among us.  Sailors pled guilty of divers attempts to get below, but said it was no go, a guard everywhere.  Ten men in each watch of the guard which kept up night and day.  (Jaques, Bell, p105)

    Even so, the first mate did manage to woo a sister. In a conversation John Jaques had with the Captain, he “spoke in disapproval of the harsh conduct of the first mate and the folly of sister Williamson and him courting together.”  (ibid p 105)  John Jaques opined in a letter:

The first mate on the Horizon persuaded one of the sisters to stay at Boston, to be married to him, it was reported. She was the cause of all the unpleasantness that occurred between him and the Saints on board. How any girl, professing to be a Saint, could suffer herself to be led away by such a swearing, wicked man, ungovernable fellow as he was, I am at a loss to say. She seemed to be the only one, among passenger or crew that desired his acquaintance after leaving the ship.  (ibid p. 226)

Perhaps Isaac was addressed in a lecture given my Jesse Haven.  “Elder Jesse Haven addressed the members, particularly the young men upon being noisy, exhorting them to set patterns to all,” (ibid)
Brother Robinson, Sergeant of the Guard and newly married, was involved in an altercation with a passenger.  “A disturbance between Elder F.C. Robinson, captain of the guard, and Brother Farmer over boxes and tins of the latter being fast. Blows exchanged. Both too hasty.” (ibid)
June 19 the boat was approached by a fishing boat off of Nova Scotia.  The captain bought cod fish and distributed seven amongst the passengers.  Many passengers talked positively of their first experience eating cod.  (Jacques, Church History)  As the diet in most poorer English homes was based on bread and potatoes and a little meat, this was very likely Isaac’s first experience with sea food.
    At one point there was a “fire” scare on board ship.  Aaron Jackson described this.  “On the way across the Atlantic there was a near panic on board one day when the sailors were working on the sails and an officer gave the order, ‘hoist higher.’  An excitable passenger thought the man had yelled, ‘fire’ and the passengers got panicky.”  (Jackson, BYU) Elizabeth Jackson Kingsford told the same story.  “Only one incident occurred to alarm the company. When hoisting sail in a storm, once, the word was given "Hoist higher." One of the passengers mistook the word for "fire." Happily the error was discovered in time to prevent a panic on board.” (Kingsford, BYU)  John Beecroft and John Jaques also described this event:

A little after 12 a.m. I was awoke by a loud noise which sounded as though something was thrown on deck with great force and while thinking about it I was startled by the horrid and awful of "Fire! Fire!" by a man near our berth. This so alarmed some that they gave a scream and quite a number got up, amongst others was Elder F. O. Robinson who at once ordered all to bed…. Our fears happily were soon removed by being assured by the guard that there was no fire but that a sail had been torn in ribbons. (Beecroft, BYU)

Early in the morning the jib sail was split in ribbons. The main top gallant sail and the fore topsail were also injured. The noise made by the sailors on deck caused one of the guards to fancy he heard the cry of fire so he cried fire and the cry was reiterated through a great portion of the ship causing much alarm and many to jump out of their berths. However, all was quickly set to rights.  (Jaques, Bell)

    Shortly after this there was a special meeting to instruct the Saints on fire safety. (Beecroft, BYU; Jaques, Bell)   Isaac may have been on duty that night, but more likely was woken from his sleep with the cry of “fire.”
    Despite everyone’s best efforts, Mormon emigrant ships had a higher rate of death than emigration in general.  Mormon emigrant ships had a death rate between one and two percent, while the general rate was about half a percent.  The reason for this was the age of the immigrants.  Mormon companies, as previously mentioned, had more elderly who hoped to get to Zion before they died, and many children, who were more susceptible to contagious disease, which was a risk on a crowded ship with close quarters.  (Taylor, P.A.M. p 198) The Horizon had its deaths as documented by John Jaques, company historian.  He recorded four deaths.  This would represent less than half a percent, which was about average for boats crossing the Atlantic, and less than most Mormon passages.
    John Southwell describes the accidental drowning of a seven year old boy.  The boy was having fun with a rope, which somehow pulled him over board.  This was seen and a boat was lowered in an attempt to rescue him, but he never did surface.  (Southwell, BYU)  This drowning is not corroborated by the company historian as there is no documented death of a seven-year-old.  Nor is it mentioned by any other travelers.  However there was a meeting one evening, cautioning people to watch their children closely to avoid such an occurrence.  “About 9 o'clock we had a general meeting in mid-ship which was addressed by Counselor Jesse Haven and President Martin in reference to cleaning, being careful of provisions and watching our children lest they should be drowned.”  (Beecroft, BYU)

Land Sited

Land was sited June 28.  “A thin sandy broken black streak was pronounced land which proves true, being Cape Cod. Great rejoicing at this.” (Jaques, Bell)    Brother Openshaw also recorded this day:

June 28 - Beautiful day and a propitious wind brought us in sight of "Yankee Land" which is the first land that we have seen since we left sight of Ireland and truly it was beautiful. As we entered into the Bay of Boston to behold the rise and decline of hills beyond hills intersecting covered with green grass, cattle grazing, bedecked beautiful houses, rocks rising out of the water as if to resist the force of the waves. It was truly sublime to us to gaze upon it. Our hearts were cheered to behold our destined fort. We cast anchor about nine miles from the city of Boston. A pilot came on board.  (Openshaw, BYU)

 In similar fashion as when the boat left England, a pilot was brought on board to guide the ship into the harbor.  They anchored in the harbor.   Boston was not a port the Saints used often.  Between 1856 and 1857 five ships disembarked there.  The impression from the Enoch Train (earlier ship in 1856) was that the port was fairly slack.  The Doctor only took 15 minutes in conducting his inspection.  (Taylor, P.A.M. p 211)  Wallace Stegner, writing about the Enoch Train, gave some hint as to why this port may have been used.  Other ports charged a dollar head tax, but Boston did not. (See Stegner 2, p 77)
The next day the company passed the doctor and government inspectors.  The Doctor was again very quick, but the other inspectors were trying on a hot day.  “About 9 o'clock the doctor came on board and the passengers were ordered to clean up and be on deck. After a time he went away and came again with some other officers, who had all the passengers on the poop deck pass them announcing to their names. We were up on deck two or three hours, which was very wearing to the women and children.”  (Jaques, Bell) They were cleared to dock.
Captain Reed’s family came on board using a yacht.  This was a Sunday and Sunday meeting was held.  Captain Reed addressed the company.  As the Mormon’s had sung, “I will marry none but Mormons,” the Captain declared, he would “carry none but Mormons.”  He was impressed with the organization, and the character of the Mormon passengers.  The passengers gave three cheers for the Captain, three for his mates and three for his crew.  (Beecroft, BYU)
John Jaques had high praises for the Captain.  “As regards our Captain, I can speak nothing but good.  He was ever easy of access, familiar, and communicative.”  However his opinion of the first mate was very different.  “The first mate was a very difficult man.  He was a wiry Yankee, irritable, snappish, and surely and unapproachable as any English man need be.  …He would go about the deck at times roaring like a bull of Basham.”  (Jaques, Bell p 115)
Many of the Saints unloaded their mattresses, if they had them, out the porthole and into the river.  They would not be able to take them on the train or the handcarts.
The tug pulled them to port about seven or eight Monday morning.  (Beecroft, BYU)  The steamer Huron towed the ship to Constitution Wharf where it docked on June 30.  (Jacques, Church History)  To everyone’s regret the passengers were asked to stay below deck while the crew managed the boat to Boston Harbor.  “The passengers were kept down below to give more room on deck for the sailors to tack about; but it was a painful deprivation to the passenger landsmen to be shut down from the luxury of the first good and delightful sight of the land after having been so log at sea.  (Jaques, Church History)
John Jaques summarized the weather for the voyage,  “We had every variety of weather but storm--wet, dry, calm, light and strong breezes; foul winds often; fair very seldom; warm, a good deal of cold; clear, and plenty of fog. Indeed, we all felt relieved when we escaped from the clammy, flabby regions of eternal fog, that is, from the banks of Newfoundland.” (MS xviii pp 554-555, Jaques)
The first evening in Boston, the company was not allowed on shore, except a few leaders who made purchases for others.  The weather “Very hot. Remained in the vessel while arrangements were made for us to go by rail.”  (Openshaw, BYU)   However the next day, “we had the privilege of going where we was a mind to.  Then the ship began unloading and everything we kept in very good order.  It took several days to get all things to the depot…”  (McBride, BYU) Isaac does not give any indication of his activities for the few days they were in Boston.  However there were many historical sites within walking distance of Constitution Wharf, including Bunker Hill.  It is possible he had time to explore, but also may have been part of the work crew that helped move luggage to the rail depot.
A summary of the voyage of the Horizon was published in the Millennial Star.  It very likely was written by John Jacques:

On the twenty-fifth of May 1856, the ship Horizon, Captain Reed, sailed from Liverpool for Boston, with 856 Saints on board, under the presidency of Elders Edward Martin, Jesse Haven and George P. Waugh. The following elders, who had held responsible positions in the British Mission also sailed in this ship: Thomas B. Broderick and John Toone (both from Utah), John Jaques, Robert
Holt, Thomas Ord, James Stones, Henry Squires and Robert Evans. Of the emigrants six hundred and thirty-five were P. [Perpetual] E. [Emigration] Fund emigrants and two hundred and twenty-one ordinary, including seven cabin passengers…. On the thirtieth of June the steamer Huron towed the Horizon to Constitution wharf, at Boston, where the emigrants debarked. They then took cars for Iowa City, crossing the Hudson at Albany and passing through Buffalo on the fourth of July. The company arrived in Iowa City on the eighth of July. (MS xviii pp 377, 542, 536, 554)

While in port, John Jaques documented two more deaths of children.  (Jaques, Bell)  One of these was Elizabeth Ashton, Isaac’s future sister-in-law.  Company members were up as early as 3 a.m. on July 2 to prepare for the move to the depot, and transportation by train.  “Wed. 2; Up at 4.  Remaining luggage taken to the R.R. depot by 9 a.m.  Left Boston for Albany about 11 ½.  Child died before we left the ship, Brother Ashton’s, about nine years old, about 9 a.m.  (Bell, p 105)   The age given was incorrect as Elizabeth was two.  I do not know if the Ashton family was known to Isaac at this time.  However word of these deaths probably spread through the company.
The following article was printed in “The Mormon”, Church publication in New York, quoting a Chicago newspaper:

The Mormons en Route.
The ship Horizon, which recently arrived at Boston from Liverpool, brought over about 900 Mormon immigrants.  Capt. Reed, who commanded the vessel, says the he never say people more completely under the influence of a leader than these Mormons.  They did nothing without consulting their leaders, considered themselves the true Saints, observed certain hours for prayers, when not praying they were generally singing.—[Chicago Weekly Democratic Press, July 19.
The above is highly comminatory of the Horizon’s company, their president and his assistants.  President Martin is a good man—“When the righteous rule, the people rejoice.” Singing and praying, are exercises to which some mockers may be not much addicted—we prefer it with obedience, to rebellion, cursing and fighting.  (The Mormon 2: 23 (July 26, 1856), 2)

By way of summary, John Jaques offered this description of the voyage:

Waiting on the wind wearying.  Nothing sweet tasting fancied.  Plenty of patience.  A thousand little decencies, comforts and conveniences to be given up.  Long debility from seasickness, want of vigor and heartiness.  Awake every morning to find the vessel apparently in the same old hole. Mate irritable, snappish, and surly and unapproachable, a man who would make few friends, roaring bull of Basham.  Captain easy of acceptance, communicative. Some people putting their pots and kettles before others, preferring to sit on other people's boxes than their own. First mate pled guilty of disliking our guarding. Said no women go on deck without guarding ways and manners, with other immigrants. Our morality hard upon those outside. Makes these sailors good whether or not, better than they otherwise would be, better than they wish to be. Hard to keep outside of us and hard to get in among us. Sailors pled guilty of divers attempts to get below, but said it was no go, a guard everywhere. Ten men in each watch of the guard which kept up night and day. Bottom deck of ship coolest, purest air, most room, had not so light. Noise of children in the ship dinning. Washing in salt water semiweekly or weekly to get dirt off. Sail hard and get sick, gently and get well. Plenty to do; mind children, looking afterwards, water, provisions, cooking. Brother [Edward] Martin, general welfare of the company. Brother [Jesse] Haven, looked after carrying out instructions. Brother [George] Waugh, went through ship administering to the sick and afflicted, comforting, blessing and anointing with oil. Captain, 1st mate, other mates and men in good humor and joked with equal grace. Continual rocking, like a wing boat.  (Jaques, Bell p 104)